KWG Mission Statement



The impact of KWG Resources new process on future processing is therefore regarded as highly significant, with global energy reductions equivalent to the effect of completely eliminating energy demand from a country the size of Italy.

KWG’s new natural gas CHROMIUM IP, low temperature, ‘solid state’ reduction process, has enormous global competitive advantages in terms of reduced capital cost, reduced operating cost, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

The potential for KWG’s Chromium IP process to completely revolutionize the world’s ferrochrome industry should not be underestimated. Its impact reaches far beyond exploitation of a regional natural resource.

The patent-pending refining method yields a ferrochrome alloy (by reduction in solid-state without melting, in a reaction with natural gas).

In addition to benefits of the new reduction process itself, test work performed on Ring of Fire ores confirm that the Ring of Fire ores are generally more reducible, resulting in a 15-20% increase in unit capacity, compared to currently processed ores in other parts of the world.

Further, the chromium-iron alloy pellet product produced, can form part of the charge of conventional SAF furnaces producing ferro chrome, as batch or continuously charged components of the steel making process.

Our confidential laboratory test results show that smelters purchasing the metallised product would obtain a smelter capacity increase of 50% without any additional capital expenditure, reducing their effective capital cost from $1200 per annual ton to $800.

This dictates that a very substantial premium to the charge-chrome price may be commanded by this ferrochrome, which may also be readily purified to even higher-value ultra low-carbon ferrochrome, by argon-oxygen decarburization (AOD).

The opportunity to partner in piloting and commercializing KWG’s proprietary gas-reduction process can thus be exchanged for off-take terms with selected steel makers and AOD operators in China, Japan, Korea, and India, as they will all wish to participate in the advantages of highest purity, lowest cost and lowest emissions.



“Reducing energy consumption by alternative processing routes to produce ferrochromium alloys from chromite ore, a “game changing” abstract, delivered at the Torstein Utigard Memorial Symposium COM in 2015, reveals elements of a techno-economic study on this revolutionary new chromite reduction process. The study identifies a reduction in overall energy consumption of 70% against conventional processing and approximately 40% lower than the current best practice.

Click here for the Torstein-Utigard Symposium paper

By utilizing more natural gas than coal based energy sources, the KWG process is able to show an overall 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions compared with the most energy efficient current practice.

“The combinations of cheap natural gas and large quantities of high grade chromite in Northern Ontario have the potential to completely revolutionize the market for chrome units into stainless steel manufacture.”


In April of 2014, KWG Resources acquired from Frank Winter’s interests in two international patent applications after he successfully tested his formulation for refining chromite ore into ferrochrome with natural gas at Glencore’s XPS Laboratory on project #3013814.0023.

Many years ago, Rio Algom recruited Frank Winter to turn around its under-performing investment in Atlas Steel of Welland Ontario, Canada’s last stainless steel manufacturer.

He did so, then sold the company very profitably for Rio Algom, and continued his career as a stainless steel-maker and metals trader.


This ‘direct reduction’ method makes a very pure ferrochrome, but uses 70% less energy than conventional electric-arc refining and generates virtually no greenhouse gas emissions.

Based on the methodology employed, the conclusions are that the innovative process meets all the criteria initially set:

  • The need for the installation of a capital intensive smelting step is eliminated.
  • An intermediate process which upgrades the ore to a saleable intermediate product is viable.
  • This process has lower capital requirements than that of charge chrome smelting.
  • The process effectively utilizes the substantial cost and environmental benefits of natural gas for energy.
  • The need for subsidized electrical energy is eliminated.
  • The operating costs for the process are significantly lower than those involving smelting as the primary method of upgrading.

    A century’s supply of premium-priced ferrochrome that could be made in Canada using natural gas, requiring less energy and lowering emissions.

    Exploration for diamonds resulted in the discovery of an exceedingly large chromite occurrence just below the edge of the vast, flat wetlands of the James Bay Lowlands of Northern Ontario in 2008.

    Simultaneously, North America was becoming self-sufficient in oil from the fracking of shale, which also made available virtually boundless supplies of natural gas to North America’s pipeline networks. Ontario’s ‘Ring of Fire’ has the potential to become the globe’s largest and most profitable source of ferrochrome.

    Ring of Fire chromite, when reduced to ferrochrome with natural gas, produces a uniquely pure product for making stainless steel.





    Moe Lavigne, Vice President, KWG Resources Inc., talked to Theresa Longo during Mining Minute 45 about the initial trip in September to University of Minnesota Duluth’s Coleraine Laboratories. NRRI’s Minerals Lab in Coleraine, Minn., solves short-term problems, identifies unique market niches, provides medium- to long-range technical innovation and develops future products and processes. The facility has an analytical laboratory along with mineral processing, metallurgical and pyrometallurgical processing capabilities.

    Pyrometallurgy processing is focused on performing applied research in the areas of agglomeration, pelletizing, granulation, induration, sintering and associated physical/metallurgical quality assessment, primarily associated with the iron ore and direct-reduced iron industries.

    This research area interacts closely with mineralogists, geologists, metallurgists, mineral processors, water researchers, energy researchers and chemists with the aim of improving process routes for metal extraction and product recovery. The goal is to develop cost-effective processes for sustainable and environmentally responsible extraction of metals from minerals while decreasing the negative environmental impact of metal extraction processes. It provides world class services for development of new mineral reserves, process flowsheet development, improvement of existing processes, and precise analysis of process changes before they are implemented for the ferrous and non-ferrous mineral processing industry.

    Moe Lavigne, Vice President, KWG Resources Inc., talked to Theresa Longo during Mining Minute 47 about the latest progress made regarding the development of KWG Resources’s gas reduction of chromite since his recent visit to the University of Minnesota Duluth, Natural Resources Research Institute Coleraine Laboratories.


    Ring of Fire ferrochrome was successfully produced at a laboratory scale in the Coleraine laboratories, which is an important development because these initial types of tests are necessary in order to create the parameters required to begin the next step; a full pilot ‘commercial scale’ of gas reduction of chromite into ferrochome inside the linear hearth furnaces at Coleraine.

    Moe Lavigne expects that the lab scale testing will be completed soon and that by the end of December, 2016, that technicians at Coleraine will be in a position to begin full commercial scale gas direct chromite reduction testing.

    This totals three separate metallurgical laboratories that have worked on KWG’s natural gas, solid state, low-temperature reduction of Ring of Fire chromite ore into ferrochrome; XPS Consulting & Testwork Services, Natural Resources Canada Canmet Labs and now, Coleraine Research Laboratories.

    The government of Canada has said that “the chromite deposits located in Ontario’s Ring of Fire have production potential that could make Canada a significant global producer, processor and supplier of products that contain the critical metal chromium”.

    The Canada Canmet metallurgical facilities have been researching chromite for almost two years, and this summer, they successful produced ferrochromite carbide using KWG’s gas chromite reduction method.

    This September, their labs revealed spectacular results producing much larger ferrochromite carbide crystals that were first produced at the XPS Consulting Labs.

    The size of the crystals is extremely important because the larger the crystals, the easier is to separate them from the waste minerals.

    In this field of mining research and development, it is standard practice to continue maximizing the size of the crystal through optimizing their growth variables and KWG will continue the Coleraine test work during the life time of the project.



    Economics Documentation Library


  • Ontario Chamber of Commerce Report | WHERE ARE WE NOW? A Report Card on the Ring of Fire| 2014
  • Ontario Chamber of Commerce Report | Beneath the Surface: Uncovering the Economic Potential of Ontario’s Ring of Fire
  • Thunder Bay, North Bay, Sault Ste. Marie, & Sudbury Chamber of Commerce Policy Resolution To Federal Government | Make The Ring of Fire A Priority Of National Significance| Visit Chamber Website –> Sept 22, 2016| Chamber Passes Ring of Fire Policy Resolution at CCC AGM
  • Outokumpu Integrated ferrochrome business in Kemi-Tornio | Investor Visit to Kemi Mine | Jyrki Salmi Vice President – Kemi Mine Outokumpu Ferrochrome, Kemi | October 7th, 2015
  • Background Paper, Economics, Resources Internal Affairs Library Of Parliament | Resource Development In Canada: A Case Study On The Ring Of Fire | Jed Chong | March 31, 2014
  • Mining in Northwestern Ontario | Opportunities and Challenges | Dr. Dadgostar Bahram, Professor Sam Garofalo, Dr. Nikola Gradojevic, Dr. Camillo Lento, Dr. Karen Peterson | September 27, 2012
  • MiningWatch Canada Report | Economic analysis of the Ring of Fire chromite mining play | Joan Kuyek, D.S.W. | January 25, 2011
  • Macquarie Commodities Research | The medium-term nickel market outlook | Jim Lennon –Consultant to Macquarie | May 2015


    First Nations Documentation Library


    First Nation Treaty Map Ontario

  • Nishnawbe Aski Nation – DISCUSSION PAPERS | The Future of Nishnawbe Aski Nation’s Economy | Les Louttit, Deputy Grand Chief
  • KWG – The Ring of Fire Partnership Presentation – Nishnawbe Aski Development (NADF) Event October 20th, 2016, Days Inn, Timmins, Ontario | pdf-icon-smallKWG – The Ring of Fire Partnership Presentation – Nishnawbe Aski Development (NADF) Event, October 20th, 2016, Days Inn, Timmins, Ontario
  • Ontario First Nation Treaties – NEED TO KNOW | Treaties
    What you need to know about treaties in Ontario | The Government of Ontario
  • Chiefs of Ontario Annual Report 2014 – 2015 | Strengthening Relations
  • With or Without You: First Nations Law (in Canada) McGill Law Journal 1996 | Strengthening Relations | John Borrows


    Environment Documentation Library

    Koper Lake, Ring of Fire, Ontario Canada

    Ring of Fire Area, Ontario Canada

  • SAFETY INFORMATION SHEET FOR STAINLESS STEEL Outokumpu | Outokumpu Safety Information Sheet | Dec 10, 2015
  • Case Study: Chromite mining and processing | Public Heath Ontario: Partners for Health | Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion | April 2015
  • York University’s Institutional Repository, Undergraduate research paper | Ontario Ring of Fire Surface Water Susceptibility Analysis | Adlar Gross & Anatoliy Sirokvash, Professor Podour | April, 2015
  • Cancer incidence among Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel production workers in 1967–2011:a cohort study | Conclusions: It is not likely that the occupational exposures in the Finnish ferrochromium and stainless steel industry would have increased the risk of cancer. | Markku Huvinen, Eero Pukkala | October 9, 2013
  • Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium – Center of the Disease Control and Prevention | Criteria for a Recommended Standard Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium | National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) | September 2013
  • Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University | CHROMITE MINING | Environmental Assessment, Dr. M.A. (Peggy) Smith | March 14, 2012
  • Priority Substances List Assessment Report: Canadian Environmental Protection Act | Chromium and its Compounds | Government of Canada Environment Canada Health Canada | 1994


    Rail Documentation Library

    The GreenForest Management Road Study

    The GreenForest Management Road Study

  • Green Forest PDF REPORT | Green Forest Management Inc. | RING OF FIRE & NORTHERN ONTARIO COMMUNITY ALL-WEATHER ROAD ACCESS | Released 2016
  • Northern Policy Institute PDF REPORT | Northern Policy Institute, Roads, Rail, and the Ring of Fire | October 2015
  • Northern Policy Institute Port Authority Model | PDF REPORT | The Airport/Port Transportation Authority Model – Is It Applicable for Ontario’s Ring of Fire Mineral Development? | Northern Policy Institute | Nick Mulde | Friday, June 13, 2014
  • Pope & Company PDF REPORT | A New Technology for a New Chromite District | Pope & Company | July 10, 2013
  • Tetra Tech WEI Inc PDF REPORT | KWG Resources Inc. released a study that it commissioned by the international engineering firm Tetra Tech WEI Inc. to compare the capital and operating costs of both a railroad and an all-weather road to the Ring of Fire. | February 21st, 2013
  • KWG PDF PRESENTATION | KWG hired Minnesota-based consultants Krech-Ojard and Associates and Golder Associates to study the potential for rail access and carry out geotechnical studies. | Dec 20, 2012
  • Krech Ojard & Associates Newsletter DOWNLOAD PDF | KWG hired Minnesota-based consultants Krech-Ojard to study the potential for rail access and carry out geotechnical studies. | Spring 2010
  • OVERVIEW | Early History Overview Rail Corridor Routes


    Chromium IP Documentation Library

    Scanning Electron Micrograph of Reduced Chromite Ore Using Natural Gas

    Scanning Electron Micrograph of Reduced Chromite Ore Using Natural Gas

  • Winter, Frank – PROVISIONAL PATENT | KWG Resources Inc. (Assignee) Provisional Patent: Production of chrome alloys directly from chromite ores. | US 61/893,400 International 4562PCT, 21 October 2013
  • Glencore XPS – KWG PRESS RELEASE | Black Horse Smelting Test Produces 61.9% Cr In Ferrochrome | August 14, 2013
  • Pope & Company PDF REPORT | A New Technology for a New Chromite District | Pope & Company | July 10, 2013
  • Naicker, O and Riley, T. – ABSTRACT | Xstrata Alloys in profile. South African Pyrometallurgy | Ed R. T Jones, SAIMM March 2006
  • Barnes, A.R and Eric, R.H. – ABSTRACT | The Relative Reducibilities of Chromite Ores and Relative Reactivity of Carbonaceous Reductants. | Infacon 7. Trondheim 1995
  • Ruhmer, W.T – GOOGLE BOOKS | Ruhmer, W.T Handbook on the estimation of metallurgical process costs. | Mintek, 1991
  • Barnes, A.R; Finn, C.W.P and Algie, S.H. – ABSTRACT | The Pre-reduction and smelting of chromite concentrates of low chromium-to-iron ratio. | JSAIMM March 1983
  • Nuttington, R.C. Barcza, N.A. – ABSTRACT | Pre-reduction of Fluxed Chromite Ore Pellets Under Oxidizing Conditions | Mintek, 1989